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Sweet Sprinkles Mix: Frost Bite

Frostbite has been described in military history for millennia. The Greeks encountered and discussed the problem of frostbite as early as BCE. Napoleon's Army was the first documented instance of mass cold injury in the early s. Several notable cases of frostbite include: Captain Lawrence Oates , an English army captain and Antarctic explorer who in died of complications of frostbite; [21] noted American rock climber Hugh Herr , who in lost both legs below the knee to frostbite after being stranded on Mount Washington New Hampshire in a blizzard; [22] Beck Weathers , a survivor of the Mount Everest disaster who lost his nose and hands to frostbite; [23] Scottish mountaineer Jamie Andrew , who in had all four limbs amputated due to sepsis from frostbite sustained climbing the Mont Blanc massif.

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Evidence is insufficient to determine whether or not hyperbaric oxygen therapy as an adjunctive treatment can assist in tissue salvage. Medical sympathectomy using intravenous reserpine has also been attempted with limited success. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about a medical condition. For other uses, see Frostbite disambiguation. Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America. Springer Publishing Company. Elsevier Health Sciences. Archived from the original on Retrieved December Sports Health. British Medical Bulletin.

Prehospital Emergency Care. Deutsches Arzteblatt International. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. BBC - History. Boston Magazine. Aviat Space Environ Med. Mil Med. The effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on tissue survival". Hyperbaric Med. Archived from the original on 10 July Retrieved 20 June Undersea Hyperb. Archived from the original on 15 September Retrieved 30 June Archives of Surgery. General wounds and injuries TT35 , Abrasion Avulsion.

Insect bite Spider bite Snakebite. Hand injury Head injury Chest trauma Abdominal trauma. Consequences of external causes T66—T78 , — Hyperthermia Heat syncope. Hypothermia Immersion foot syndromes Trench foot Tropical immersion foot Warm water immersion foot Chilblains Frostbite Aerosol burn Cold intolerance Acrocyanosis Erythrocyanosis crurum. Radiation poisoning Radiation burn Chronic radiation keratosis Eosinophilic, polymorphic, and pruritic eruption associated with radiotherapy Radiation acne Radiation-induced cancer Radiation recall reaction Radiation-induced erythema multiforme Radiation-induced hypertrophic scar Radiation-induced keloid Radiation-induced morphea.

Christmas & Frostbite | Anne Taintor

Physical abuse Sexual abuse Psychological abuse. For example, the end of a finger or toe can gradually separate off. The most important way of preventing frostbite is to get out of the cold. If you are exposed to the cold, make sure that you have adequate protective clothing.

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Frostbite is an injury that is caused by exposure of parts of your body to temperatures below freezing point. The fingers, toes and feet are most commonly affected but other extremities, including the nose, ears and cheeks, can also develop frostbite.

A Frostbite Christmas

Usually your blood carries oxygen to all parts of your body so that your body tissues are kept healthy. As a protective response, when your body is exposed to extreme cold, blood vessels narrow constrict so that blood and oxygen are diverted away from your extremities to your vital organs to keep your body alive. After some time, this lack of blood supply and oxygen to the skin can start to cause damage to the cells. In areas of the body affected by frostbite, ice crystals form and cells and blood vessels become damaged.

Blood clots can also form in small blood vessels which further reduces the chance of blood and oxygen getting to the affected tissues. The chance of frostbite is increased the longer that you are exposed to the cold temperatures. If the cold temperatures are accompanied by wind producing wind chill which brings the temperature down further or high altitude there is a greater risk.

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  5. Generally, frostbite is worst in lower temperatures. However, it can affect anyone who is exposed to low temperatures below freezing - in particular, those who wear inadequate clothing. If you have underlying health problems such as narrowing of the arteries, mainly occurring in the legs peripheral arterial disease or diabetes, you have an increased risk of developing frostbite. If you take certain medicines that narrow constrict your blood vessels, your risk is increased.

    Beta-blockers are a good example of this. You are more at risk of developing frostbite if you smoke, as the chemicals in cigarettes can cause your blood vessels to constrict. You are more at risk of developing frostbite if you have had alcohol or recreational drugs which make you drowsy or behave differently to usual. This is because you may be less aware of how cold you are and less aware that you are in danger. You are then less likely to get out of the cold, or protect yourself from it. People who have Raynaud's phenomenon a condition where the small blood vessels of the fingers constrict also have an increased risk of developing frostbite.

    See separate leaflet called Raynaud's Phenomenon for more details.

    Rather like burns, frostbite injuries are classified by the degree of injury. The degree of frostbite basically refers to how deep the frostbite injury goes. Your skin has two layers - the outer layer epidermis and the dermis. The dermis sits just under the epidermis. Beneath the dermis is a layer of fat, and then the deeper structures such as muscles and tendons.

    Frostbite can be described using these four levels but it may simply be described as superficial frostbite or deep frostbite.

    Superficial frostbite corresponds to first-degree or second-degree frostbite. Deep frostbite corresponds to third-degree or fourth-degree frostbite. These are important because superficial frostbite means there is likely to be very little or no tissue loss. Deep frostbite suggests there will be greater tissue loss. Frostbite can cause feelings of cold and firmness in the affected area, such as the fingers or toes.

    Stinging, burning and numbness can also occur. You may experience pain, throbbing, burning or an electric current-like sensation when the affected area is re-warmed.


    In first-degree frostbite, the affected area of skin usually becomes white and feels numb. Sometimes the skin is red. It may also feel hard or stiff. If it is treated quickly, the skin usually recovers fully. In second-degree frostbite, the affected skin is often red, or may become blue. It feels frozen and hard. Later her mother comes by to give her a Christmas gift after the Christmas dinner where she gives Rose a 'Nazar evil eye ' pendant.

    Rose then learns from her mother that Tasha has propositioned Dimitri into being her Guardian and also being with her sexually so that they can have kids together and further the dying-Damphir race. Rose, though grateful for the gift, is stunned and hurt by this revelation and so she dismisses her mother. The students are taken to a ski resort for Christmas where Rose grows closes to her friend Mason and realizes the extent of his affections for her. She feels guilty because her heart lies with Dimitri but is determined to forget about him knowing that he is going to take Tasha up on her offer.

    Thus, she begins to start unofficially dating Mason. Rose bumps into Adrian Ivashkov, a royal Lord, who flirts with her and is intrigued by her.