Unlike yes- element question , wh-questions generally have falling intonation. As a rule, i the wh-element ie the clause element containing the wh-word comes first in the sentence apart from some conjuncts as on the other hand ; ii the wh-word itself takes first position ini the wh-element. The only exception to the second principle occurs when the wh-word is within, a prepositional complement.
Questions and negatives
Here English provides a choice between two constructions, one being formal. In formal style, the preposition precedes the complement, whereas otherwise the complement comes first and the preposition is deferred to the end of the sentence:. We may perhaps express this difference more neatly by saying that neutral style generally requires that the wh-word comes first, but formal English requires that the wh-element as a whole comes first.
In some cases there is no sensible presupposition:.
As the above examples indicate, a positive wh- question may generally be matched with a positive presupposition. There may, however, be no presupposition if nonassertive items cf The questions are conduction, having a negative orientation. Questions introduced by Why do you have a positive presupposition, but a negative orientation when have the illocutionary force of directives:. As a directive, it cannot have a past form. Thus Why did you bother to reply? The abbreviated form with the bare infinitive is always a directive:. In the presupposed particular unknown is outside the scope of negation.
The directives are invitation or more commonly in AmE suggestions or instructions:. Ordinary questions can have more than one wh-element: Which present did you give to whom!
If one of the wh-element is subject, it must be initial: who said what to whom Generally only one wh-element is fronted, but adverbial wh-element may be coordinated Quirk, When and where did they meet? There are two types of alternative questions. The first resembles a yes-no question, and the second a wh-question Quirk, :. The first type differs from a yes-no question only in intonation; instead of the final rising tone, it contains a separate nucleus for each alternative: a rise occurs on each item in the list, except the last, on which there is a fall, indicating that the list is complete.
The difference of intonation between alternative and yes-no questions is important, in that ignoring it can lead to misunderstanding — as the contrast between these replies indicates:. The second type of alternative question is really a compound of two separate questions: a wh-question followed by an elliptical alternative question.
Thus  might be taken as a reduced version of:. Converting a yes-no question into an alternative question introduces this tautology into the presupposition:. The tautology gives a petulant tone to the question and explains why such questions are not normal. The structure of alternative yes-no questions follows the pattern of coordination the ellipse forms generally being preferred, where they are possible:.
Often the remaining part of a second or subsequent alternative question is fronted to the appropriate position in the first question:. There is no fronted version of Are you coming or not? Are you or not coming?
Questions can be divided into two minor classes such as exclamatory questions and rhetorical questions Quirk, The exclamatory question is interrogative in structure, but has the illocutionary force of an exclamatory assertion. Typically it is a negative yes-no question with a final falling instead of rising tone:. The meaning, contrary to the appearance of the literal wording, is vigorously positive. In situations where both the negative and the positive questions are possible, the difference is roughly represented by these paraphrases:.
The rhetorical question is interrogative in structure, but has the force of a strong assertion. It generally does not expect an answer. A positive rhetorical yes-no question is like a strong negative assertion, while a negative question is like a strong positive one Quirk, According to Thomson and Martinet in their book A Practical English Grammar state that interrogative sentence has various function, such as: giving suggestion, make request, give confirmation, invitation, permission, offering and greeting.
Interrogative sentences can be used to express suggestion in daily conversation. Interrogative sentence which has the function a suggestion usually opened with wh-question or an auxiliary. All of the examples above are interrogative sentence as a suggestion. It has function give suggestion to someone to take holiday. In example 1 and 2 the interrogative sentence above are started with wh-question wh and in 2 the interrogative sentence is started with an auxiliary.
Those sentences have functioned as suggestion. Interrogative sentence which has the function to make a request is usually opened by modal auxiliaries such as can, could, will, and would. This interrogative sentence is used to ask someone to do something.
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It is used to express request. In this case the speaker requests the listener to wait a moment.
Sentences: Sentence Functions: The Four Tops
In example no 3 and 4, the interrogative sentence as a request because ask someone to do something. This form is daily conversation is usually followed by an auxiliary which expect yes or no answer and needs information. In the interrogative sentence no 1, it shows that the speaker asks information from another person.
The sentence has function of asking for information. In no 2, its functions are to ask information. It means the speaker wants to know about examination result. In no 3, started with wh-question What. It is used to ask information about time. Interrogative sentence with has the function as a confirmation is interrogative sentence that follows a statement this is the tag-question. If the statement is positive, the tag is negative and if the statements are negative, the tag is positive. These are short additions to sentences, asking for agreement or confirmation.
In no 1, the sentence has the positive statement and negative tag question, in example no 2, the statement is negative and tag is positive. And in example no 3, the sentence also has the positive statement with negative tag question. All of them are use to ask confirmation. The interrogative sentence can be used when we want to invite someone and it is usually opened by wh-question or an auxiliary. The interrogative sentences above have function invitation. The sentence no 1, use the auxiliary would.
It shows that the speaker invites someone to go together. The sentences no 2, is started with auxiliary could that the speaker invites someone to have lunch together.
Sentence no 3, the modal may before the subject I. Interrogative sentence can have function to ask permission with someone. The words which are used in this sentence such as: allow, permit, let and can be followed by an auxiliary, may and used for permission. Interrogative sentences with have the function as an offering is used to give or offer something to another person. This sentence is opened with an auxiliary or wh-question. The sentence no 1, is interrogative sentence as an offering.
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I mean that the speaker is offering a cup of coffee. The sentence no 2, the speaker I want to offer a help the person. The sentence no 3, is also to offer some tea to someone. Interrogative sentence as a greeting is used when we meet someone who has been known for the first time. And also used when two people are introduced each usually says a greeting Thomson, The examples above are interrogative sentence as a greeting.